1917: British intelligence intercepts a coded telegram from the German government requesting an alliance with Mexico if the U.S. enters World War I. In return for a Mexican attack on the United States, Germany would offer financial aid and assist Mexico in regaining Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The Mexicans decline, and the “Zimmermann Telegram” sparks outrage when published in U.S. papers, leading Congress to declare war on Germany in April.
1942: As U.S. and Philippine soldiers conduct a delaying action on Luzon Island, 26th Cavalry Regiment troopers and their Philippine Scouts spot a detachment of Japanese troops approaching the town of Morong. Lt. Edwin P. Ramsey orders what becomes the last cavalry charge in U.S. military history, which surprises and scatters the enemy.
On Bataan, U.S. Army Sgt. Jose Calugas – a Philippine Scout – notices that one of the gun batteries have been disabled by enemy bombs and shelling, killing or wounding the gun’s operators. Without orders, he charges across a 1,000-yard killzone, where he organizes a crew of men to get the cannon working again and begins returning fire.
After being relieved, he returns to his normal post as mess sergeant. He is nominated for the Medal of Honor, but falls into enemy hands when the island is captured. The Japanese put Calugas on a work detail, and he secretly joins a guerilla unit and fights to liberate the Philippines. After the war, he is finally awarded the Medal of Honor and receives a commission.
1945: As the Red Army drives west through Poland and the Wehrmacht is beaten back to its positions prior to their last-ditch Ardennes Offensive (the Battle of the Bulge), Adolf Hitler enters the underground bomb shelter and Nazi command post known as the Führerbunker. The German dictator will spend the rest of his life at the compound.
1991: (Featured Image) When the UN deadline for Saddam Hussein to withdraw his military from Kuwait expires at midnight, hundreds of planes take off from U.S. carriers and from bases in Saudi Arabia, decimating Iraq’s air force and air defense network. Operation “Desert Storm” – Saddam’s “Mother of All Battles” – has begun.